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PIC16F87XATI/SP Datasheet - Page 67

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8.3
PWM Mode (PWM)
In Pulse Width Modulation mode, the CCPx pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch,
the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data
latch.
Figure 8-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the
CCP module in PWM mode.
For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 8.3.3 “Setup
for PWM Operation”.
FIGURE 8-3:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCP1CON<5:4>
Duty Cycle Registers
CCPR1L
CCPR1H (Slave)
Q
R
Comparator
(Note 1)
TMR2
S
Comparator
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
Note 1: The 8-bit timer is concatenated with 2-bit internal Q
clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler, to create 10-bit time
base.
A PWM output (Figure 8-4) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The
frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(1/period).
FIGURE 8-4:
PWM OUTPUT
Period
Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
8.3.1
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
register. The PWM period can be calculated using the
following formula:
PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • T
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period].
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
Note:
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 7.1
“Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler”) is
not used in the determination of the PWM
frequency. The postscaler could be used
to have a servo update rate at a different
frequency than the PWM output.
8.3.2
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR1L contains
RC2/CCP1
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
PWM Duty Cycle =(CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) •
TRISC<2>
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2
occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode,
CCPR1H is a read-only register.
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This
double-buffering is essential for glitch-free PWM
operation.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2,
concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of
the TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
The maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency is given by the following formula.
EQUATION 8-1:
Resolution =
Note:
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period, the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
PIC16F87XA
OSC
(TMR2 Prescale Value)
T
• (TMR2 Prescale Value)
OSC
(
F
)
OSC
log
F
PWM
bits
log(2)
DS39582C-page 67

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